ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme)
INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES (ICDS)
The Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and started by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 1975-76 with an aims at the holistic development of children and empowerment of mother. The successful implementation of this scheme rests on the commitment of Anganwadi worker who are the grass root honorary workers. As the incidences of mortality, morbidity and malnutrition among the children was very high. So to reduce these incidences ICDS projects was started on 1.8.1979 with 24 anganwadi centres. At present there are 3 ICDS Projects comprising of 450 anganwadi centres covering an approx. population of over 5.50 lac in villages, colonies and slums. The objectives of the ICDS is as under :-
The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme was launched in 1975 with the following objectives:
- To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years;
- To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
- To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
- To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development;
- To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
The above objectives are sought to be achieved through a package of services comprising:
- Supplementary nutrition
- Health check-up
- Referral services
- Non-formal pre school education
- Nutrition & health education.
Three of the six services namely Immunization, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
DETAILS OF THE SERVICES ARE GIVEN BELOW:
I. SUPPLEMENTARY NUTRITION PROGRAMME:
This includes supplementary feeding and growth monitoring; and prophylaxis against vitamin A deficiency and control of nutritional anemia. All families in the community are surveyed, to identify children below the age of six and pregnant & nursing mothers. They avail of supplementary feeding support for 300 days in a year. By providing supplementary feeding, the Anganwadi attempts to bridge the caloric gap between the national recommended and average intake of children and women in low income.
At present the following beneficiaries are enrolled as on 31.08.2019
|No of centres||Children 6month to 3 years||Children 3 to 6 years||Pregnant and Nursing||Adolescent girls|
As per the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India’s orders and Govt. of India’s instructions vide which the feeding norms and rates for supplementary nutrition were revised as under and the Supreme Court had categorically instructed that scope of inviting contractors in the supply of SNP is prohibited .
|CATEGORY OF BENEFICIARIES||SPECIFICATIONS|
|PERMISSIBLE EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA (RS.)||CALORIES||PROTEIN (Gms)|
|6 month to 6 years (severely malnourished)||12.00||800||20-25|
|6 month to 6 yrs.(normal)||8.00||500||12-15|
|Pregnant & Nursing ladies||9.50||600||18-20|
At present the Prison Department is catering to 100 anganwadi centres. The department plans to hand over all the remaining 350 anganwadi centres to the Jail Authorities for supply of Supplementary Nutrition Programme. However 4 NPOs have also been engaged for the supply of Supplementary Nutrition in 400 anganwadi centres.
Growth Monitoring and nutrition surveillance are two important activities that are undertaken. Children below the age of three years of age are weighed once a month and children 3-6 years of age are weighed quarterly. Weight-for-age growth cards are maintained for all children below six years. This helps to detect growth faltering and helps in assessing nutritional status. Besides, severely malnourished children are given special supplementary feeding and referred to medical services. As on 31.08.2019 there are 365 severely undernourished children enrolled in the anganwadi centres.
Immunization of pregnant women and infants protects children from six vaccine preventable diseases-poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis and measles. These are major preventable causes of child mortality, disability, morbidity and related malnutrition. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus also reduces maternal and neonatal mortality. All the children in the age group of 0 to 6 yrs, Pregnant Women and Adolescent girls within the jurisdiction of AWC ,the chart is as under:-
|S. No||Category||Immunization/ Supplementation|
|1.||Pregnant Women||Ist and 2nd Doze of T.T,Booster, Iron and Folic Acid Tablets as per the recommendation of the Health Staff|
|2.||Infant||B.C.G at Birth or within 1 month|
|3.||Infant||Panta I,II 3 dozes at 6 weeks,10 weeks, 14 weeks|
|4.||Infant||Measles at 9months with 1st doze of Vit A ( 5 dozes of Vit A up to the age of 3 yrs)|
|5.||Children||DPT/Polic Booster doze at 11/2 yrs|
|6.||Children||DT at 5 yrs|
|7.||Children||MMR Immunization after 18 months|
|8.||Adolescent girl||T.T./Rubella/Iron and Folic Acid Tablets|
3. HEALTH CHECK-UPS:
This includes health care of children less than six years of age, antenatal care of expectant mothers and postnatal care of nursing mothers. The various health services provided for children by anganwadi workers and Primary Health Centre (PHC) staff, include regular health check-ups, recording of weight, immunization, management of malnutrition, treatment of diarrhoea, de-worming and distribution of simple medicines etc.
All the children in the age group of 6 month to 6 yrs, Pregnant and Nursing Mothers within the jurisdiction of AWC. The Duty Roaster has been prepared by the Health Department for the Medical Officer and Para Medical Staff for covering 450 anganwadi centres for the health check up of the anganwadi centres.
The children in the age group of 0-3yrs are being weighed every month, the children in the age group of 3-6 yrs are weighed every 3rd month and the mal nourished children are being weighed every month.
At present a team of Doctors and para medical staff has been appointed for the health check up of ICDS beneficiaries . A four month roaster has been prepared by the Health Department for the health check up of ICDS beneficiaries.
4. REFERRAL SERVICES:
During health check-ups and growth monitoring, sick or malnourished children, in need of prompt medical attention, are referred to the hostital or its sub-centre. The anganwadi worker has also been oriented to detect disabilities in young children. She enlists all such cases in a special register and refers them to the medical officer of the dispensary/ Sub-centre.
The referral services are provided to the children in the age group of 0-6yrs, Pregnant, Nursing mothers who are at risk. The beneficiaries are referred to Dispensaries, PHC, General Hospital, Prayas, GMCH.
5. NON-FORMAL PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION (PSE)
The Non-formal Pre-school Education (PSE) component of the ICDS may well be considered the backbone of the ICDS programme, since all its services essentially converge at the anganwadi – a village/slum/colony/urban slum courtyard .Anganwadi Centre (AWC) is the main platform for delivering of these services. These AWCs have been set up in every village slum/colony/urban slum in the country. In pursuance of its commitment to the cause of India’s children, present government has decided to set up an AWC in every human habitation/ settlement. As a result, total number of AWC would go up to almost 1.4 million. This is also the most joyful play-way daily activity, visibly sustained for three hours a day. It brings and keeps young children at the anganwadi centre - an activity that motivates parents and communities. PSE, as envisaged in the ICDS, focuses on total development of the child, in the age up to six years, mainly from the underprivileged groups. Its programme for the three-to six years old children in the anganwadi is directed towards providing and ensuring a natural, joyful and stimulating environment, with emphasis on necessary inputs for optimal growth and development. The early learning component of the ICDS is a significant input for providing a sound foundation for cumulative lifelong learning and development. It also contributes to the universalization of primary education, by providing to the child the necessary preparation for primary schooling and offering substitute care to younger siblings, thus freeing the older ones – especially girls – to attend school.
The Non formal pre school education is provided to the children in the age group of 3 to 6 yrs on all working days of the anganwadi centres. The Pre school eduction is provided to the beneficiaries according to the Time Table prepared for them. Pre School Kits are available in each anganwadi centres.
6. NUTRITION AND HEALTH EDUCATION:
Nutrition, Health and Education (NHED) is a key element of the work of the anganwadi worker. This forms part of BCC (Behaviour Change Communication) strategy. This has the long term goal of capacity-building of women – especially in the age group of 15-45 years – so that they can look after their own health, nutrition and development needs as well as that of their children and families.
Ladies in the age group of 15 to 45 yrs are covered for providing Nutrition and Health Education. Mothers meetings are held on every Monday in each anganwadi centres. The Sectoral Level meeting are held in each Supervisor’s area every month. The Anganwadi Workers are conducted 5 Home Visit per day for providing health and Nutrition Education. The official of Food and Nutrition Board visiting the centres regularly and providing nutrition and health education to the mothers of the beneficiaries. The demonstration on nutritious low cost recipes are also held at anganwadi level by the Food and Nutrition Board.
Another Schemes run by ICDS
Scheme for Adolescent Girls
The Govt of India had introduced new Scheme for the adolescent girls in the age group of 11-14 years namely "Scheme for Adolescent girls”-SABLA using the platform of ICDS through the Anganwadi Centre located in the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Under this scheme the following services are being provided to them :-
1. Nutrition Component for 11-14 years for out of school girls.
2. Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation
3. Health Check up and Referral Service
4. Nutrition and Health Education
5. Counseling/Guidance on Family Welfare, ARSH, Child Care Practices and Home Management
6. Life Skill Education and accessing public services